Avatars Of Forgiveness, Part 3: Aang’s Avenging

Avatar Aang bends the energy of mercy and justice by respecting life yet punishing the world’s enemy.
on Aug 28, 2014 · 19 comments


One month ago this conclusion to the Avatars of Forgiveness miniseries could have been very different. Its subtitle would have been “Aang’s Mercy” and its theme would have been about how Aang at the finale of Avatar: The Last Airbender (A:TLA) showed conviction and compassion by refusing to kill his enemy.

Then I thought more about what actually happened at the end of the fantastical animated series (all of which you must view via streaming or library DVDs before you read this).

What actually happens is the same as happens in any story in which a good hero chooses not to avenge himself against an enemy and instead rejects his own vengeful desires to kill the villain, and/or seeks to redeem him, and/or lets “fate” take care of him.

In many of these stories, it’s actually no great mercy to spare the life of an unrepentant foe.

Instead, sparing the enemy’s life is the worst thing a hero could possibly do to a villain.

‘There’s got to be another way’

A:TLA turns the story toward a thematic journey that is startling to find in a “children’s show.” In “The Southern Raiders,” Katara takes a “field trip” with Zuko and addresses her impulse toward hateful vengeance (yet concludes the truth that one cannot technically forgive an unrepentant offender). She forgives her repentant enemy, then departs.

Zuko: You were right about what Katara needed. Violence wasn’t the answer.

Aang: (with innocent confidence) It never is.

Zuko: Then I have a question for you. (He turns to face Aang.) What are you going to do when you face my father?

(Aang is suddenly shocked as the possibility dawns on him.) 1

avatarthelastairbender_zukoconfrontsozaiSince the story’s beginning, viewers have learned that Zuko’s father, the evil Fire Lord Ozai, has inherited a ruthless three-generation empire — the Fire Nation. Ozai is a total dictator who not only dominates the world’s nations from a distance, but personally wounded and banished his own son from his homeland. Moreover, Zuko knows how it is to confront the Fire Lord. In “The Day of Black Sun, Part 2: The Eclipse,” the former Fire Nation loyalist and enemy of Aang repents and promises his father will be called to account for his sins.

Zuko: I’ve come to an even more important decision. (He closes his eyes and pauses.) I’m going to join the Avatar, and I’m going to help him defeat you.

Ozai: (Smugly) Reeeally? Since you’re a full-blown traitor now and you want me gone, why wait? I’m powerless. You’ve got your swords. Why don’t you just do it now?

Zuko: Because I know my own destiny. Taking you down is the Avatar’s destiny. (He puts away his swords.) Goodbye.2

Zuko refuses his own vengeance and leaves it to a higher power, in this case the messianic Avatar who represents the world and maintains its moral balance. But now the time has come for Aang to fulfill what everyone agrees is his destiny: to stop the Fire Lord by any means and end the war. But Aang can’t do it. His lost people’s pacifism binds his conscience and he cannot reconcile this conviction with his responsibility as the Avatar to avenge evil.

As the story’s epic four-part finale begins, Aang and his friends are still recuperating in an unlikely refuge inside enemy territory: the Fire Lord’s own beach house on Ember Island.

avatarthelastairbender_ozaibabyportraitKatara: I was looking for cooking pots in the attic, and I found this! (She unravels a scroll that shows a painting of a happy dark-haired baby playing at the beach.) Look at baby Zuko. Isn’t he cute?

(All the others laugh — except Zuko.)

Katara: Oh, lighten up. I’m just teasing.

Zuko: That’s not me. It’s my father.

(The others fall silent. Katara rolls up the scroll.)

Suki: But he looks so sweet and innocent.

Zuko: Well, that sweet little kid grew up to be a monster, and the worst father in the history of fathers.

Aang: But he’s still a human being.

Zuko: You’re going to defend him?

Aang: (calmly) No, I agree with you. (He stands.) Fire Lord Ozai is a horrible person and the world would probably be better off without him. But there’s got to be another way.

Zuko: Like what?

Aang: I don’t know. (He perks up and speaks faster.) Maybe we can make some big pots of glue, and then I can use gluebending to stick his arms and legs together so he can’t bend anymore!

Zuko: (with faux-eagerness) Yeah! Then you can show him his baby pictures, and all those happy memories will make him good again!

Aang: (sincerely and excitedly) Do you really think that would work?

Zuko: (angrily) No!

Aang: (He sighs and paces.) This goes against everything I learned from the monks. I can’t just go around wiping out people I don’t like.

Sokka: Sure you can. You’re the Avatar. If it’s in the name of keeping balance, I’m pretty sure the universe will forgive you.

Aang: (Turns back to Sokka and shouts louder than Zuko.) This isn’t a joke, Sokka! None of you understand the position I’m in!

Katara: Aang, we do understand. It’s just —

Aang: Just what, Katara? What?!

Katara: We’re trying to help!

Aang: Then when you figure out a way for me to beat the Fire Lord without taking his life, I’d love to hear it! (He walks away.)3

Do you believe Aang can save the world?

Do you believe Aang can save the world?

In A:TLA the language, minor themes, and symbols are decidedly Eastern-influenced but the foundation is almost explicitly Christian. Aang rightly recognizes that even the evil Ozai is a human being — and even evil human beings bear the image of God. Aang grew up being taught to respect all forms of life.4 Aang faces a choice even more difficult than that of a sincere pacifist who is drafted to military service: he can’t conscientiously object. He’s the Avatar. It is his duty to save the world.

After his confrontation with his friends, Aang vanishes. He ends up on the back of a floating forest born by an ancient mythological creature: a lion turtle. This fantastical world never shows mystical sentience but does display a sense of fate/justice, and has come to his aid.

‘Now you shall pay the ultimate price’

avatarthelastairbender_aangavatarstateFinally Aang confronts the Fire Lord. The battle is spectacular as the Avatar and his enemy clash in the skies, both empowered with super-firebending granted by a blazing comet.

Repeatedly Ozai appears near victory. Then Aang’s supernatural “avatar state” kicks in. Up he rises surrounded by a whirling mass of all four elements — water, earth, fire, and air — and he pursues the panicked Ozai through another forest, this one of rock columns. At last Ozai is down. The Avatar speaks with the chorus of past Avatars who could be heard as a “great cloud of witnesses,” a heavenly pronouncement of righteous wrath on the evil one.

Aang: Fire Lord Ozai! you and your forefathers have devastated the balance of this world! And now you shall pay the ultimate price!

(As a terrified Ozai watches, Aang prepares his final attack. All four elements combine into a stream of death that spirals through the air and rockets toward Ozai’s heart — then at the last second dissolves. Aang regains control of himself. He slips out of the avatar state and floats to the ground. Ozai is freed as Aang quietly steps back.)

Aang: No. I’m not going to end it like this.

Ozai: (Angrily.) Even with all the power in the world, you are still weak!

avatarthelastairbender_energybending(Ozai moves for one last attack — which Aang senses with his feet as taught by his earthbending master Toph. Aang stamps down. His foot lifts and drags up a pillar of earth, deflecting Ozai’s attack and binding him inside the rock. Aang circles Ozai. He raises another rock to bind Ozai’s other hand. Aang earthbends the rocks lower and forces Ozai to kneel. Ozai attempts one final fire breath attack, but Aang airbends it away. Aang steps closer, puts one hand on Ozai’s forehead and one on his chest.)


(Aang completely takes over Ozai’s energy. A blazing beam of blue erupts into the sky, then vanishes. Ozai falls to the ground and Aang releases him. Ozai tries to rise and attack — but falls back exhausted.)

Ozai: What … what did you do to me?

Aang: I took away your firebending. You can’t use it to hurt or threaten anyone else ever again.5

Ozai has kept his life, but lost his birthright to master the element of fire. He is emasculated. His humanity he keeps but his gift is ripped away by a righteous hand of justice. Later we see that Ozai himself is banished from his throne. Instead he is condemned to spend the rest of his ways in prison — a pit in which he can rage and hate but never again hurt others.

Yet Aang’s conscience is clear. He hasn’t gone around “wiping out people” he doesn’t like. He has fulfilled his destiny on behalf of a cause greater than himself, and yet honored life.

This is both mercy and justice. It’s mercy because Aang as a human respected the humanity of his enemy and refused to disrespect his life. It’s also justice because Aang as the Avatar listened to his predecessors’ advice and recognized that he must take action to stop the Fire Lord and bring him to account for his evil. Within the story Aang sees what fans outside the story have already been seeing and which honest fans of any story with villains can easily see: that the world, the story itself, the less-corrupt parts of our hearts cry out for justice.

You may already see what I meant about how this shows Aang’s rightful avenging. For even in his mercy, Aang has actually enacted the worst penalty that Ozai could possibly imagine.

Surely Ozai would have chosen death over a lifetime of powerlessness and suffering.6

Ozai would have preferred his own merciful annihilation. But Aang sent him to Hell.

The end

The heroes of Avatar: The Last Airbender show Biblical pictures of repentance, forgiveness, refusal to avenge, and even willingness to enforce civil justice against evildoers in a manner that reflects Rom. 13.

  1. Zuko repents of his arrogance and evil against the Avatar and others, and with utter brokenness cries out to his good Uncle Iroh for forgiveness (part 1). This reflects the nature of Biblical repentance in which the evildoer renounces sin and lives a life of continued repentance — a life lived not for sin but for a Person greater than himself.
  2. Katara pursues her desire for vengeance on an enemy to its logical conclusion, and then finds she cannot follow through (part 2). Her story echoes the Biblical truth that vengeance belongs to God alone. Yet Katara and the story are honest about the nature of forgiveness: that while we may release our hate and vengeance and leave an offender to God (or in Avatar, to fate), we can’t yet forgive unrepentant evildoers. Yet Katara overcomes bitterness and genuinely forgives her repentant enemy, Zuko.
  3. Aang’s story reflects a Biblical picture of two perplexingly dual truths: that man is created in God’s image and yet must suffer the consequences for his evil, and that even forgiven people must serve as instruments of others’ consequences for sin.

Now that this series is finished, what did you think? Did you find other interpretations or themes that I may have missed? How does Avatar’s avatars match Scripture’s beauty and truth about forgiveness? How may they differ from Scripture or from our own images of forgiveness?7

  1. Transcript based on “The Southern Raiders” episode transcript at Avatar.Wiki.com. This brings to mind a slight nitpick with A:TLA: Aang had already gone to the Fire Lord’s palace during the team’s invasion on the day of black sun, in an attempt to confront him. Was Aang then unwilling to kill or injure the Fire Lord? Perhaps because of his “try to airbend away from the problem” personality, he truly had not considered it then.
  2. Transcript based on “The Day of Black Sun, Part 2: The Eclipse” episode transcript at Avatar.Wiki.com.
  3. Transcript based on “Sozin’s Comet, Part 1: The Phoenix King” episode transcript at Avatar.Wiki.com.
  4. Aang is also a vegetarian; the story respects this choice yet also the choices of Sokka and other Water Tribe members who enjoy meat.
  5. Transcript based on “Sozin’s Comet, Part 4: Avatar Aang” episode transcript at Avatar.Wiki.com.
  6. I can think of many other story villains who demand death instead of lifetime punishment.
  7. Thoughts are also welcome about the recent heart-wrenching finale to The Legend of Korra book 3.
E. Stephen Burnett explores fantastical stories for God’s glory as publisher of Lorehaven.com and its weekly Fantastical Truth podcast. He coauthored The Pop Culture Parent and creates other resources for fans and families, serving with his wife, Lacy, in their central Texas church. Stephen's first novel, a science-fiction adventure, launches in 2025 from Enclave Publishing.
  1. notleia says:

    You keep saying that the foundation of the show is “explicitly Christian,” but I’d like to see some textual support (or whatever the TV version of “textual support” is). Respect for life isn’t only a Christian value, and while forgiveness has some special warm-fuzzies for us, we don’t have a monopoly on it. Preferably this textual support would cross-referenced with textual support from Christianity and Buddhism, but I’ll admit that’s a tall order. But you really ought to back up claims like “Avatar is directly awesome specifically because of Christianity despite being obviously influenced from Buddhism.”

    • Glad to oblige.

      You keep saying that the foundation of the show is “explicitly Christian,” but I’d like to see some textual support (or whatever the TV version of “textual support” is).

      My arguments throughout this series are sufficient support that Avatar‘s pictures of repentance and forgiveness are overwhelmingly biblical — in fact, more biblical than the view of some Christians who believe that we should forgive everyone even if they do not repent and persist in their sin (see: child molestors, spiritual abusers).

      Here is more textual support — in the form of a commentator’s reference to the Avatar creators’ own commentaries — for the fact that key stories in Avatar were inspired not only by Jesus’s parable of the prodigal son, but a painting of Mary holding the dead Jesus.

      If you listen to the commentary track on the final four episodes of Avatar, the moment that Iroh embraces Zuko, Mike and Bryan openly discuss the connections to the Prodigal Son.

      They also talked about how this http://images1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20110119173755/avatar/images/6/69/Aang_dead.png

      was inspired by this http://www.maidofheaven.com/maid_assets/extras/Michelangelo_Pieta.jpg

      So the connections to christianity are beyond deniability.

      As for the contrast, once again I am saying that while the “face” of Avatar shows many elements from Eastern religion — chakras, reincarnation, the mystical elements of martial arts, etc. — it’s the repentance/reconcilation/forgiveness/good versus evil elements that are drawn from “Western” ideas of morality, which have their origin in Judeo-Christianity.

      Respect for life isn’t only a Christian value, and while forgiveness has some special warm-fuzzies for us, we don’t have a monopoly on it.

      I’m curious why you feel the need to give this reminder/lecture. 🙂 Nothing I have written would indicate that non-Christians cannot adopt, understand, or practice this concept of repentance and reconciliation. What I am saying, however, is that these ideas of mercy and justice have originated in Judeo-Christian views of the world. There is no sin, no guilt, and no shame in pointing this out and even feeling thanksgiving to the God Who established these virtues — virtues that reflect His mercy and justice, love and holiness.

      … claims like “Avatar is directly awesome specifically because of Christianity despite being obviously influenced from Buddhism.”

      On the contrary, I’ve acknowledged influence from both world-religions. Again, I said:

      In A:TLA the language, minor themes, and symbols are decidedly Eastern-influenced but the foundation is almost explicitly Christian.

      The very fact that the story follows a traditional hero’s journey — e.g. hero has/had what he wants, hero loses it, hero fights for it, hero falls hard, hero rallies again, hero commits the ultimate sacrifice and wins and vanquishes evil — is further evidence of a Christian-inspired foundation. This series hasn’t even explored that; I’ve only explored the forgiveness themes.

      • notleia says:

        hero has/had what he wants, hero loses it, hero fights for it, hero falls hard, hero rallies again, hero commits the ultimate sacrifice and wins and vanquishes evil — is further evidence of a Christian-inspired foundation.

        WAAAAT? So, you’re claiming that the monomyth theory as being explicitly Christian, too? Though when you conflate “Christian” with “Western,” as you seem to be doing, it’s a eeny little bit less of a stretch, but it’s still a stretch.

        What I am saying, however, is that these ideas of mercy and justice have originated in Judeo-Christian views of the world. 

        That’s exactly what I’d like some citation on. If a square is a rectangle but not all rectangles are squares, I want you to give some proofs that this is a square, you follow?

        • notleia says:

          And you know what also uses Judeo-Christian symbolism? Neon Genesis Evangelion. Is it Christian? Nope. A reference isn’t necessarily an endorsement, yanno.

      • You haven’t yet responded to my proof above that the Avatar creators intentionally explored both pictures of biblical events (such as the speculative painting of Mary holding the dead Jesus) and themes/stories of forgiveness that are unique to the Bible, most explicitly Zuko’s reconcilation with Iroh.

        Far more interesting to me is why this is even important, other than — this is my interpretation — perhaps some latent impulse to be politically correct?

        Of course I believe my faith is the best one and for religious reasons alone will naturally contend that everything in the universe, including monomyth story “tropes,” is inspired by and borrows from the greatest story of Jesus Christ, because I believe God is the Author of history. This is a natural outgrowth of Biblical Christianity. To demand this be proven “scientifically” is rather absurd.

        But I also draw connections between unseen human story “memes” based on shared heritage of religion and stories. Most people in Western cultures are still very familiar with Jesus’s parable of the Prodigal Son (or rather, the parable of the two sons) and familiar with ideas images of Christ and his “hero’s journey.”

        I’ve already showed above that this is clearly the case with the Avatar creators. This doesn’t impart any motives to them; it simply makes the observation.

        Also: here I use “Western” is a synonym for beliefs that contrast with “Eastern” religion (e.g. chakras, reincarnation, “balance” between good/order and evil/disorder rather than good’s intrinsic superiority over evil, etc.). It would be silly for someone to conflate this term with, say, the hybrid civil religion of Christo-Americanism that borrows parts from Christianity to use in its own machine. (Of course, both Judaism and Christianity were born in the Middle East.)

        And you know what also uses Judeo-Christian symbolism? Neon Genesis Evangelion. Is it Christian? Nope.

        Once more, from the actual article:

        […] the [story’s] foundation is almost explicitly Christian.

        Please show where I said all of Avatar: The Last Airbender is “Christian.”

        You’ve been around SpecFaith long enough to know its regular writers are not nearly so thoughtless as to call any Judeo-Christian symbol-using story a “Christian” story. 😛 Christians are human beings defined by their salvation by and likeness to Jesus Christ. Literally, Christ-ian. So a thing isn’t “Christian.” Etc.

        Again, I’m confused why any of this strikes you as offensive. Or is this more like trollin’, even of a fellow Avatar fan (who wept at the Korra book 3 finale)? 😀

        • notleia says:

          Your persistent ethnocentrism sets my teeth on edge. HARD. Because it makes you look like a culturally appropriating asshat. And I mean asshat.

          Also, I find your lack of textual support to be super annoying mostly because of my English major training. What are these fundamentals of the show that are so explicitly Christian? All you seem to be offering is the forgiveness and the respect for life and the justice, and those are not explicitly Christian. Pieta reference? Fine and dandy, but a wink and a nod doesn’t brand this show as particularly Christian, because that’s not how references work. Use of the Prodigal Son story as a subplot? Fine and dandy, but a motif doesn’t brand this show in its entirety as particularly Christian.

          In short, I find your premise faulty, your logic whack, and, again, your cultural appropriation asshattish.

          • Matthias M. Hoefler says:

            notleia, how do you not get how rude you are being? No doubt you’ve heard that before. For this reader, whatever valid points you may have are being lost in your approach of degrading Burnett. Which I notice is a favorite hobby. It disgusts me.


            Critique the argument rather than the arguer. Civility on your part might make life easier.

        • Your persistent ethnocentrism sets my teeth on edge. HARD. Because it makes you look like a culturally appropriating asshat. And I mean asshat.

          Thanks for your honesty. But that means this isn’t a friendly discussion as I had hoped, but a potential flame war (fueled by at least one person’s anger) that could spread out of control. So I suggest we end the discussion soon.

          I’ve still offered more support for my views above than you’ve offered for any claim that my perspective is “ethnocentric.” 🙂 As with other popular-cultural criticisms based on appearance alone — e.g. the assertion that “that looks evil to me, so it must be evil” — I can’t follow this approach. It seems based not on respect for another person’s viewpoint and desire to converse with and understand him/her, but on religious-level shaming — a cultural fundamentalist impulse. I say this not to throw back shame in return but to point out (again, I think) that you seem to imitate the exact same “that looks like a sin to me, so it is sin (and makes me outraged)” methods that are better known among fundamentalist Christians. So I ask: why the shame attempts?

          • notleia says:

            Hare Krishna Odin Mithra, you are indeed making me angry, but I agree it’s pointless to argue with you when you insist on being blind to how your argument, that Avatar is awesome because Christianity despite the Buddhism/Eastern philosophy, minimizes the contribution of awesome made by Buddhism, et al, and even tries to appropriate that awesomeness because forgiveness, et al, is theoretically (unfoundedly) explicitly (with the connotation of exclusively) an attribute that Christians have, implying that Buddhists do not.

            You need to step out of your Evangelical bubble a little more often.

          • Your “swearing” makes me smile.

            But there’s still nothing in my article that matches anything like this:

            Avatar is awesome because Christianity despite the Buddhism/Eastern philosophy, minimizes the contribution of awesome made by Buddhism, et al, and even tries to appropriate that awesomeness because forgiveness, et al, is theoretically (unfoundedly) explicitly (with the connotation of exclusively) an attribute that Christians have, implying that Buddhists do not.

            This is an old, old “debate” that happens every time a Christian says/implies this:

            1. Christian: I suggest that Virtue X originates from the Christian faith.
            2. Non-Christian: You mean no one else practices Virtue X, including me!
            3. Christian: …

            If you can demonstrate where I said anything like, “Avatar is awesome because Christianity despite the Buddhism/Eastern philosophy,” or anything like “Christians have forgiveness but Buddhists” do not, I’ll gladly recuse that part.

            All of us have personal limitations in belief and knowledge based on our family, religious upbringing, culture, necessary inability to know all beliefs/cultures, etc. I know I do. But it’s absurd to say that not only this article, but I personally, am inside a “bubble” based on things I haven’t even written and do not even believe.

  2. For the record, the very nature of storytelling lends itself to varying interpretations.

    I’ve said that in Avatar, the Buddhist/Eastern ideas are certainly there but ultimately they end up more like decoration. I’ve also said the fundamental story structure is closer to Christian themes of forgiveness and reconcilation, good versus evil, and many other themes that are closer to Christianity.

    By the way, this is also true in The Legend of Korra, such as in book 2 that explores themes of moral ambiguity — one avatar closed the spirit portals; another opens them — but also ends up subverting the Eastern yin-and-yang understanding of “balance” with a very Christian idea of good versus evil: the light spirit is unilaterally good and must win while the dark spirit and his ally are unilaterally bad and must be destroyed.

    However, I know I may have missed something! So I welcome arguments that I’m all wet on the story of Avatar and its themes. But pointing out, “You have just took a position on the story’s themes” as if a position alone is invalid — I don’t get that.

    • notleia says:

      I will agree that the 2nd season of Korra has that good over evil edge, but that was a new (questionable) addition that the Aang series did not have. They were thoroughly consistent in the first series with the Avatar being a promoter of balance, not just good. And that Raava/Vaatu thing is on the list of reasons why I think the Korra series is inferior to the Aang series.

      • Glad we can agree on something.

        I wonder: have you seen the finale of book 3? As spectacular as book 2’s finale was, book 3’s finale was far more personal for every hero and thus far more emotionally gripping.

        I would contend of course that Aang’s banishment of Fire Lord Ozai to a kind of “hell” — sparing his life based not on some deep religious principle of “balance” but based on his own personal convictions that differed from each of the four previous avatars with whom he spoke! — is another indication that Avatar‘s “balance” is still a very, if I may say, “Westernized” version of the concept. In fact, even the minimal exposure I have to anime that was actually made in the East demonstrates a strong awareness of Christian concepts (several of those reviews are here on SpecFaith). It’s perfectly fine to make stories that in a sense “syncretize” “East” and “West” and explore their similarities and their differences. But any story with a hero fighting a villain or force that is clearly evil will demonstrate a basis in the Judeo-Christian worldview and influence of stories.

  3. sparksofember says:

    I really need to finish this tv series. We were renting it but the video store somehow decided to skip (or lost) a volume in their collection. We just need to buckle down and buy it. (Btw, I’m one of the few who enjoyed the movie as much as the series.) I’m already spoiled for how it goes though, so I enjoyed the articles.

    While I wouldn’t call Avatar a “Christian” show, it definitely relies on many Christian themes. I have to wonder how much of it intentionally comes from the personal beliefs of the people behind the show and how much may just be due to the artistic/cultural influence of a show that imitates Japanese anime but is western-made…

  4. Haska607 says:

    This was said beautifully.You showed the meaning of Avatar the last airbender and the choses aang made. Thank you.

  5. Kessie says:

    I wish somebody would explore the themes in the finale of season 2 of Avatar. You know the part when Aang has to learn to open the chakras? But each thing he learns is a Christian virtue. I was watching it, totally blown away. Why can’t actual Christian fiction be this good?

    • Which is just my point/theory: Avatar‘s storytelling cannot help but use the language and concepts of Eastern religion as a sort of colorful surface over top of Christian-inspired beliefs. See also: Star Wars, Star Trek, and a whole host of other fantasy and science fiction that tries valiantly to be all mystical and humanist but follows Judeo-Christian concepts of good versus evil, heroism, respect for life especially human life, and more distinctives.

  6. Hannah says:

    Awesome articles! I especially loved your ending punchline. 🙂

  7. bainespal says:

    One preacher called Abraham and Lot and the other Biblical figures of the Old Testament “Christians,” noting that “they didn’t know that name.” In the context of the Christian audience, it may have been an effective choice of semantics to express the complicated idea that the Old Testament saints related to God by faith in His covenant the same way that Christians do today. However, if there had been a Jewish person in the audience, I don’t think anyone could blame him for becoming offended at the implication that Abraham and Moses were Christians.

    I think it’s true from one set of semantics to say that universal morality originates in Christianity, taking a very broad definition of “Christianity.” But even for hardcore exclusivist Christians, I don’t think this is the best or most accurate terminology. Morality is universal and common to all people; that is why God is just to judge. Like the Old Testament saints, universal morality predates Christianity.

    As a Christian, I believe that Christ embodied the totality of moral truth, that Christianity uniquely expresses the true existential condition of humanity. Christianity embodies universal morality better and more directly than any other religion can, but the moral truth did not originate in or with Christianity.

    Literary themes may be different. Some ideas that even non-Christians value in the modern world may have originated from Christianity’s influence on Western civilization.

What do you think?